Professor Jaco Hoffman (DPhil, Oxon) is Professor of Socio-Gerontology in the Optentia Research Unit, North-West University (Vanderbijlpark Campus), South Africa where he leads the Ageing and Generational Dynamics in Africa (AGenDA) programme. He is also Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Population Ageing, University of Oxford, UK where he co-ordinates the UN endorsed African Research Network on Ageing (AFRAN). AFRAN brings together African and international institutions and individuals from academia, policy and practice to develop and expand African research and training capacity on ageing. He furthermore is an Honorary Professor in the Institute of Ageing in Africa, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, and was a past president of the South African Gerontological Association (SAGA) as well as a founding member of the South African Older Person’s Forum. Jaco co-directs, with Prof Sebastiana Kalula (UCT), the International Longevity Centre (ILC) – South Africa and is a Director of the International Federation of Ageing (IFA) Board. His research experience relates to the Social Sciences (Sociology, Anthropology) broadly with specialization in the multi-disciplinary field of Socio-gerontology (including topics like HIV/AIDS, poverty, [long-term] care, families, community development).
Development of a care economy strategy in Gauteng, South Africa
Mr. Jongi Ganyile holds an Honors and Masters degree in Development Studies acquired from the University of South Africa and the University of KwaZulu-Natal, respectively. He has worked extensively as a researcher in the academic, public and private sectors for the past almost 2 decades where his research interests have been in social and economic and industrial development. In the Gauteng Department of Economic Development, he has worked in policy development space developing, among other things, the Care Economy Strategy for Gauteng.
Dr Lyn Ossome specialises in feminist political economy and feminist political theory, in particular gendered labour, land and agrarian studies, the modern state and the political economy of gendered violence. She received her PhD in political studies from Wits University. She currently works as a Senior Research Specialist and Feminist Economics Lead at the Institute for Economic Justice and is a Senior Research Associate at the University of Johannesburg. Previously, she was a Senior Research Fellow at the Makerere Institute of Social Research, Makerere University. She has also been a visiting scholar at the National Chiao Tung University and Wits University as well as Visiting Presidential Professor at Yale University. She participates in various boards such as the International Association for Feminist Economics (SIHA Network), the Strategic Initiative for Women in the Horn of Africa (IAFFE), and the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA).
Ms Lowna Gie is passionate about contributing towards meaningful and lasting social change in sub-Saharan Africa. She is currently studying towards a PhD in Social Science (Ageing and Development) at Optentia Research Unit, North West University. In her PhD, she is exploring how the capabilities of unemployed youth in Gauteng can be harnessed (as paid caregivers) to meet the long-term care (LTC) needs of older persons in the province. She also has over 15 years of experience in working in the development sector. During her tenure at HelpAge International, she coordinated and developed a sub-regional network that promoted the rights of older persons. Among other achievements, she developed a standard operating procedure for the South African Tuberculosis Think Tank for comprehensive health and psychosocial screening, testing and management in shelters in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and developed and managed two job creation projects in East Africa. She also completed a M.Sc. (cum laude) from Stellenbosch University.
Dr Sune Ferreira-Schenk has a PhD in Economics and Financial Risk Management and is currently the academic chair of risk management at the School of Economic Sciences at NWU. As a researcher in the 4th industrial revolution, she is passionate about to contributing innovative research to the field of economics, risk and investment management. Her research is aimed at providing information to the industry that can be applied practically by understanding the behaviour of market participants. For example, she collaborated with private financial companies to model financial market participants behaviour based on their individual characteristics. She also worked on the foundation of the Emfuleni water and sanitation project – creating a system to clean the Vaal river with the prospects of creating thousands of jobs and alleviating poverty in the Vaal area.
Ms. Barbara Ziyane holds a masters degree in Economics and is currently studying towards a Doctor of Philosophy in Social Science with Public Management. Her research interests are in the areas of technology, industrialisation and innovation, as well as monitoring and evaluation. As a Head of Economic Policy and Planning in the Gauteng Department of Economic Development, Ms. Ziyane is responsible for the development of evidence-based economic policies and strategies to address unemployment, poverty and inequality. Moreover, under her leadership, the Gauteng Provincial Parliament adopted a number of policies and strategies, to name a few, the Gauteng Trade and Investment Strategy, the Gauteng Cooperatives Strategy and Gauteng SME Policy and Strategy, as well as the Gauteng Industrial Policy. Ms. Ziyane was previously a Lecturer of Economics at the University of Johannesburg. She is a member of different decision making and high-ranking portfolios at the Provincial Government level.
Jaco Hoffman, North-West University, South Africa
Jaco Hoffman, North-West University, South Africa
Jongi Ganyile, Gauteng Department of Economic Development, South Africa
Lyn Ossome, Institute for Economic Justice, South Africa
Lowna Gie, North-West University, South Africa
Sune Ferreira-Schenk, North-West University South Africa
Barbara Ziyane, Gauteng Department of Economic Development, South Africa
The number of older people and the burden of disease in Gauteng province is on the rise – increasing the demand for comprehensive long-term care (LTC) significantly. This places extreme stress on informal female caregivers. The exponential threat of an older, disease-burdened, unemployed population could harvest a radical economic development opportunity. The LTC demand could potentially offer opportunities for inclusive economic development and growth but is under-explored. Gauteng experiences the unrelenting challenge of creating employment for its increasing unemployed population, especially youth. This symposium will investigate how the growing LTC demand and an expansion of formal LTC services could contribute towards providing employment opportunities. Indications are that a well-developed care economy may improve the quality of formal LTC and care recipients’ quality of life, and be a key source of future job growth. However, a body of emerging evidence suggests that Gauteng’s previous lack of focus on the care economy presents a major missed opportunity. As the economic powerhouse in South Africa and keeping with its model status, Gauteng is ideally positioned to lead the setting of agendas on care economy related opportunities. This should start now, while there is still a window of opportunity to do so.
This symposium, chaired by Professor Hoffman, is designed for those interested in understanding how (1) to develop a care economy that provides quality LTC for older persons and creates decent employment opportunities for youth and women and/or (2) a care economy strategy can be developed using co-created, innovative, evidence-based interventions. It will focus on the evolution of the Gauteng Care Economy Strategy (the Strategy) from conceptualisation to the final product. The five speakers, including academics and government officials, will explore: (1) the need for the development of a care economy, how it ties into policy and the Strategy’s vision (presented by Mr. Ganyile and co-authored by Ms. Masinga); (2) the conceptualisation of the care economy (presented by Dr. Ossome); (3) the rationale for developing the Strategy and approaches and methodology used (presented by Ms. Gie); (4) the evidence informing the development of the Strategy (presented by Dr. Ferreira-Schenk and co-authored by Prof. Dunga, Dr. David, and Mr. de Jongh); and (5) an overview of the Strategy and the relevance for other care domains (presented by Ms. Ziyane). Discover the successes, challenges and lessons learned from developing the Strategy and how these can be drawn on when developing a care economy in your context.
Presenter #1, Jongi Ganyile
Need for the Gauteng Care Economy Strategy
Co-author: Ms. Masinga
The first presentation will highlight the need for the development of a care economy and how it aligns with current policy as well as sharing the Growing Gauteng Together 2030 (GCT2030) vision. Statistics demonstrating the extent of the demand for LTC services for different population groups (such as older persons, children and persons living with disabilities and/or HIV) in Gauteng will be presented. For example, 25 per cent of SA’s older persons reside in Gauteng. Additionally, the very high unemployment rate in Gauteng, especially for youth, will be discussed. Other key socioeconomic issues in Gauteng will be explored, including poverty, limited formal LTC services, inequality, and lack of decent jobs. How these issues are addressed in the Growing Gauteng Together 2030 action plan and how the development of a care economy aligns with this vision will be explained. The vision of the LTC Strategy will be shared – namely developing an evidence-based, tailor-made strategy that will formalise LTC services in Gauteng, provide quality LTC, create decent employment for unemployed youth and women, contribute towards addressing gender equity, and, ultimately, improve the quality of lives.
Presenter #2,Lyn Ossome
Conceptualizing the care economy
The second presenter will provide a general conceptualisation of the care economy. The idea of the care economy has been developed mainly within the feminist economics theory and practice, but elements of care can be found in the broader sphere of policy, research, advocacy, and in government initiatives. The care economy is essential to the functioning of the economy, yet is often neglected in policy because of a tendency to focus narrowly economic factors while neglecting the social aspects that constitute economies as a whole. Approaches that examine socioeconomic relations across various components of local and global economies are, therefore, essential. Care work and the care economy will be defined, before exploring the economic and social realm that constitutes the care economy and explaining relevant economic theories. The socioeconomic factors impacting the care economy in Gauteng, challenges in the care sector in the province and factors determining the quality of LTC will be discussed. How policy and social development plans for a care economy ought to be developed will also be explained and focus on policy implications and stakeholder responsibilities.
Presenter #3, Lowna Gie
Towards the development of the Gauteng Care Economy Strategy
The third presenter will describe the rationale behind the Strategy as well as the approaches and methodology utilised. Against the background presented by first two presentors, and in line with the International Labour Orgnisation’s (ILO’s) Decent Work Agenda, investing in the Gauteng care sector creates much-needed jobs, provides quality LTC, reduces the burden of care experienced by informal caregivers, contributes towards gender equity, realises the GGT2030’s vision and, ultimately, improves the quality of lives. A first and vital step to this end ‒ to ensure that Gauteng’s agenda-setting on LTC builds upon the best possible knowledge and operational base – is the pursuit of a set of strategic shorter-term evidence generation activities. Therefore, the Gauteng Department of Economic Development (GDED), North West University (NWU)/ Optentia Research Unit, and other stakeholders collaborated to develop the Strategy. After the rationale for the Strategy is explained, six imperatives which drive the need for LTC of older persons and a care economy in Gauteng will be presented. The approaches of co-creation, consultation and knowledge-sharing used to develop the Strategy and the methodology (including a literature review and multiphase mixed methods empirical study) will also be described.
Presenter #4,Sune Ferreira-Schenk
Evidence informing the development of the Gauteng Care Economy Strategy
Co-authors: Prof. Dunga, Dr. David, and Mr. de Jongh
The fourth presenter will explain the secondary data collection and analysis conducted in the empirical study. This evidence will contribute towards informing the co-created, tailor-made interventions; relevant policies; investments in infrastructure, technology and training; and policy alignment that should be included in the Strategy. The secondary data presented will include the scope of the provincial care sector, current allocated resources towards the care industry, and its implications on employment for youth and woman, gender equity and poverty alleviation. Results will also include data analysis on the number of caregivers and older persons in need of care within the formal care sector in Gauteng; identification of current and planned public and private sector investments in the Gauteng care sector; economic models informed by the data analyses; and economic benefits of a care economy. Limitations of the study will also be discussed.
Presenter #5, Barbara Ziyane
The Gauteng Care Economy Strategy: Overview and relevance
This presentation will explain the LTC Strategy and the relevance for other care domains. Co-created, evidence-based, innovative, tailor-made interventions included in the Strategy will be presented. The investments needed in infrastructure, technology and training, and policy implications at all levels will be also explained. The implementation plan, corresponding budget, theory of change and core ideas of a monitoring and tracking tool developed as part of the Strategy will also be described. The relevance of the Strategy for other contexts will be explored, focusing on the successes, challenges and lessons learned during the development of the Strategy and how these can guide the development of care economies in other care domains.