To establish a sound system of long-term care is the necessary requirement in actively responding to population ageing as well as the core of promoting the healthy elderly-care service system and the key link of perfecting the top-level design of older people’s livelihood security system. Based on the comparison and analysis of different patterns of long-term care system in various places of China, it shows that it is a necessary trend to transform from long-term “medical + care insurance system” which is affiliated to medical insurance, to independent “care insurance”. It is a practical option to establish a long-term care system combined with insurance, assistance and benefit allowance. “Fund-guarantee” and “Service guarantee” are two coupled sub-systems in the whole system. In respect of establishing long-term care insurance system, it is better to develop commercial type of insurance rather than social type.